位置岳成律师事务所 > 中文 > 法律名谚 >

西方法律谚语

  一、法的品性
  法的特点
  The law does not define exactly, but trusts in the judgement of a good man.法律并不做(过于)详尽规定,而委诸善良之人进行判断。
  The legislators do not care for those things which rarely happen.立法者不关心稀罕之事。
  In law, the proximate, not the remote cause is regarded.法律只究近因,不问远因。
  There is no rule without a fault.有规则必有缺陷。
  Every exception itself is also a rule.例外自身也是一条规则。
  The smallest circumstance may change the law.最微小的环境变化也可能导致法律的变化。
  Common error sometimes passes current as law.反复出现的普遍错误也会成为法律。
  Principles prove, and they are not proved.原则用来证明而本身不需进行证明。
  法与正义
  The law delights in equity; it covets perfection; it is a rule of right.法律悦纳平衡,渴求完美,规定正义。
  The greatest charity is to do justice to every one and at any time whenever it may be necessary.最大的善就是公正对待每个人,并且在任何需要时候都是如此。
  法律、紧急需要与理性
  Reason and authority are the two brightest lights of the world.理性和权威是世界上最明亮的两个灯塔。
  What can be excused or extenuated in criminal cases by necessity is not so in civil ones.紧急需要在刑事案件中免除、减轻罪责,但在民事案件却不免除、减轻责任。
  法律、惯例与衡平法
  Equity is a specie of equality or equalization.衡平法帮助无知者,但不帮助粗心大意的人。
  法律冲突的处理规则
  The express agreement of parties overcomes the law.双方当事人明示的协议胜过法律。
  Private law is subject to the protection of public law.私法在公法的保护之下。
  A public law or right cannot be altered by the agreement of private persons.公法或公共权利不因私人间的协议而改变。
  When the common law and statute law concur, the common law is to be preferred.普通法与指定法向冲突时,普通法优先。
  General things do not derogate from special things.一般不废除特殊;一般法不会损害特别法。
  二、权利、权力与责任
  法律的权威
  Precedents that pass sub silentio are of little or no authority.默默无闻的先例是很少有权威性。
  法律与权利
  No man can forfeit the right of another.任何人都不得剥夺他人的权利。
  Where there is a right, there is a remedy.有权利必有救济。
  T here is no wrong without a remedy.没有救济就谈不上侵权。
  Remedies for rights are ever favorably extended. 权利救济的途径越宽越好。
  Time runs against the slothful and those who neglect their rights.时间总是对那些懒汉和忽视自身权利者不利。
  法律与自由
  Everything is permitted, which is not forbidden by law.法不禁止即自由。
  When doubts arise, the most generous and benign presumptions are to be preferred.如果出现疑问,就应该优先选择最宽容和仁慈的推定。
  义务和责任
  Extremely difficult things are regarded as impossibility.极度困难即视为不可能。
  The fault of another should not do injury to us.责任应当自负。
  Ignorance of fact excuses, ignorance of the law does not excuse.对事实无知可以免责,对法律无知不可免责。
  法律与权力
  Supreme power can dissolve, but cannot bind itself.最高权力可以解散,但是不可能约束自己。
  Ever jurisdiction has its bounds.每一种管辖权都有其界限。
  In the presence of the superior power, the inferior power ceases.在上级出面时,下级就不再行使其权力。
  The power derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.派生之权力,不能比原权力大。
  A power is strictly interpreted.对权力应从严解释。
  三、法官与司法
  法官即其职责
  It is the province of a judge to declare the law, not to give it.法官的职责是宣布法律而不是创立法律。
  No one ought to depart out of the court of chancery without a remedy.任何人都不应在大法官法庭中未得到救济就空手而归。
  If you judge, understand.如果你要进行审判,就要了解案情、懂得法律、理解人情世故。
  法庭与审判
  Want of finality in law is reprehensible.法无终局,应受责难。
  司法原则
  The judge does not demand more than the plaintiff demands.法官不鞥提出比原告更多的要求。
  To a judge who exceeds his office or jurisdiction no obedience is due.对超越自己职权和管辖权的法官就不应遵从。
  法律解释
  It is improper to pass an opinion in any part of a sentence without examining the whole.若未审查整个句子,那么对句子中任何部分的意见都不可信。
  An error in the name is nothing when there is certainty as to the person.若能够确定本人,名字的错误就无关紧要。
  Wills ought to have the broadest interpretation.对遗嘱应作广义解释。
  四、法律程序
  正当程序
  A jurisdiction act by a judge without jurisdiction is void; but a ministerial act, from whomsoever proceeding, may be ratified.没有司法管辖权的法官所作的司法行为是无效的,但一项行政行为,不论由谁做出,都是可以事后追认的。
  When opinions are equal, a defendant is acquitted.当控辩双方理由持平时,应宣告被告人无罪。
  诉讼规则
  Sunday is not a day in law.法律不计星期日。
  It is the office of the judge to instruct the jury of points of law, it is the office of the jury to decide on matters of fact.向陪审团指示法律是法官的职责,决定实施问题是陪审团的职责。
  A personal action dies with the person. (This must be understood of an action for a tort only).关于人身的诉讼随着个人的死亡而结束(这应理解为仅限于侵权之诉)。
  An action is not given to him who has received no damages.没有损害就没有诉讼。
  All actions in the world are limited within certain periods.世上一切诉讼都是有审结期限的。
  He who renounces his action once, cannot any more repeat it.一旦放弃诉讼,就不能再次提起。
  A plea of that matter the dissolution of which is sought(by the action)is of no effect.(通过诉讼)对已经获解决的问题再提出请求是徒劳的。
  It is for the public interest that the decision of cases should be final.诉讼裁决的终局性,符合公共利益的要求。
  Circuity is to be avoided, and it is the duty of a good judge to determine litigations, lest one lawsuit arise out of another.缠讼应当予以避免,优秀的法官在判决时应当避免使一个诉讼引发另一个诉讼。
  证据规则
  The extremes being proved, the intermediate proceedings are presumed.极端情况得到证立后,中间状态就可予以推定。
  A presumption will stand good until the contrary is proved.推定在被否证之前,视为有效。
  All things are presumed to be done legitimately, until the contrary is proved.所有行为在被证实为非法之前,推定其合法。
  In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than the light.在刑事案件中,证据应该确凿无疑。
  The testimony of one witness is equivalent to the testimony of none.只有一人作证等于无人作证。
  An evidence of debt not existing is presumed to have been discharged.已证明不复存在的债,推定已履行。
  He who is in the womb, is considered as born, whenever it is for his benefit.一旦涉及其利益,未出生的孩子也视为已经出生。
  五、民事司法
  总论
  The power derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.派生之权利,不得超过原有权利的权限。
  One cannot transfer to another a right which he has not.自己所没有的权利,不得进行转让。
  An act already begun, the completion of which depends on the will of the parties, may be revoked; but it depends on the will of a third person, or on a contingency, it cannot be revoked.依双方当事人的意图所实施的法律行为,虽然已开始,还可撤回;而依第三者意图或基于以外事件而实施的法律行为则不能撤回。
  Deceit is an artifice, since it pretends one thing and does another.欺诈是一种伪装术,因为其表面上是一回事但做的又是另一回事。
  It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 隐瞒欺诈,也是欺诈。
  Gross negligence is fault; gross fault is fraud.重大疏忽构成过错,重大过错构成欺诈。
  He who is in the womb, is considered as born, whenever it is for his benefit.对于未出生之人,只要符合其利益,就认为他已经出生。
  An act done by me against my will is not my act.违反个人意思而为的行为无效。
  That invalid from the beginning cannot be made valid by the subsequent.自始无效者,不会因后续行为取得效力。
  Ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law.对事实可以免责,但不知法律不得免责。
  财产权保护
  Alienation is favored by the law rather than accumulation.法律倾向于使财产流转而不是积聚
  The accessory thing follows the principal thing.附属物跟随主物。
  An integral part being taken away, the whole is taken away.当物的关键部分被取走时,视为整物被取走。
  A thing which has no owner naturally belongs to the first findings.无主物归先发现者所有。
  Things captured by pirates and robbers do not change their ownership.被海盗或强盗夺取之物,所有权不发生转移。
  Hanging fruits make part of the land.树上的果实构成土地的一部分。
  Whatever is affixed the soil belongs to the soil.凡土地上的定着物。从属于该地。
  Ricers and ports are public, therefore the right of fishing is common to all.河流和港口是公有物,因此谁都有权去那里钓鱼。
  Every man’s house should be a perfectly safe refuge.每一个人的房宅都应当成为绝对安全之地。
  Home(s) of citizens are inviolable.公民住宅不受侵犯。
  契约与债
  Custom and agreement of overrule law.习惯和合意可使法律无效。
  A subsequent ratification has a retrospective effect, and is equivalent to a prior command.事后的追认具有溯及力,与先前同意具有同等效果。
  The term merchandise belongs to movable things only.可以移动的物才能成为“商品”。
  Equal knowledge on both sides makes the contracting parties equal.信息对称才能公平交易。
  He who contracts with another, either is or ought to be acquainted with the condition of the other.立约人知道或者应当知道对方的情况。
  A contract cannot arise out of an act radically vicious and illegal.有效契约不能源自邪恶和违法的行为。
  Out of a nude or naked pact(that is, a bare parol agreement without consideration)no action arises.无约因的口头契约不能请求履行。
  He is fraudulent who sells the same thing twice.一物二卖构成欺诈。
  In all obligations in which a date is not put, the debt is due on the present day, the liability accrues immediately.在所有未指明日期的债务中,债务从即日起成立,偿债义务亦随之产生。
  An evidence of debt not existing is presumed to have been discharged.缺乏债务凭证时,推定债务已经得到清偿。
  Where there is turpitude on the part of both giver and receiver, we say it cannot be recovered back; as often as the turpitudes is on the side of the receiver alone it can be recovered back.赠与人与受赠与人均违反道德时,我们认为赠与人不得请求返回赠与物;不过当违反道德仅限于受赠人一方时,则赠与人随时都可以要求返还。
  A donor never ceases to possess until the donee begins to possess.赠与物在交付之前,仍属赠与人所有。
  Whenever there is an ambiguous expression in a contract, it is preferable that an interpretation conducive to the safety of the subject-matter should be given.合同若有歧义,解释应有助于保障标的物之安全。
  Let a purchaser beware.买者当心。
  The purchaser who has been evicted in whole or in part has a right to be indemnified by the vendor.当标的物的部分或全部被他人追夺时,买受人可以向出卖人请求赔偿。
  委托与代理
  He who commands is held to have done it himself.支配他人为某种行为,视为自己亲自而为。
  The right of the grantor being extinguished, the right granted is extinguished.授权人自身的权利被取消时,其所授予的权利也被取消。
  A delegated cannot delegate, unless he be expressly authorized so to do.除非委托人同意,代理人无权委托他人再为代理。
  A delegated authority cannot be again delegated.代理人无权进行富代理。
  损害赔偿
  There is no wrong without a remedy.有损害必有救济。
  Equity suffers not a right without a remedy.衡平法不允许有权利而无救济方法。
  All things are presumed against a wrongdoer.一切事物都作不利于侵权行为人的推定。
  That to which a man consents cannot be considered an injury.对自愿者不构成伤害。
  He who dose not prevent is regarded as doing the thing.能防止而不予防止的,视为行为人。
  Let the principal answer.雇主应承担责任。
  婚姻、家庭与继承
  When two things repugnant to each other are found in a will, the last is to be confirmed.遗嘱若有相互矛盾之处,以时间靠后者为准。
  六、刑事司法
  犯罪
  No one is punished unless for some wrong, act or default.只有存在侵害、过错或违反义务的前下,才能予以惩处。
  The law permits the taking up of arms against armed person.法律允许拿起武器来对付持有武器的人。
  The originator or instigator of a crime is a worse offender than the actual perpetrator of it.教唆犯或煽动犯的危害性,叫实行犯更大。
  It is better to meet a thing in time than after an injury inflicted to seek a remedy.及时预防要比造成损害后再寻求补救要好多了。
  刑罚
  Evil deeds ought not to remain unpunished;and impunity affords continual incitement to the delinquent.罪行必须受到惩罚,免除惩罚就会不断鼓动违法犯罪。
  A good man hates a crime because of his love of virtue, while an evil guy hates a crime for his fear of punishment.好人因为爱好美德而憎恨犯罪,坏人因为恐惧刑罚而憎恨犯罪。
  七、其他
  Whoever wishes to be a jurisconsult, let him continually study, and desire to be taught by every one.欲成为法学家者,应不断追求学问,并向一切人学习。
  Many men know what ought to be done, if you do not know how it is to be done.许多人懂得许多事,但没有哪个人事事都懂。
  We can do nothing against truth.对于真理,只能服从。
  The knowledge of smatterers is diluted ignorance.一知半解相当无知。
  Not to believe rashly is the nerve of wisdom.智慧之要领就是不要轻信。
  In doubt, the safer course is to be adopted.在没有把握时应采取比较稳妥的方针。
  When you doubt, do not act.心存顾虑,则莫为之。
  Error artfully disguised is in many instances more probable than naked truth, and frequently error overwhelms truth by (list show of) reasons.巧妙粉饰的谬误在许多场合比朴素的真理显得更加可靠,并且常常用各种理由压制真理。
  An error which is not resisted or opposed is approved.谬误没有受到抵制和反对据意味着被认可。
  Things universal are better known than things particular.普遍事物比具体事物更为人所知。
  A wise man does everything advisedly.明智的人会三思而后行。
  Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment.任何事物都不可能一蹴而就。
  Nothing against reason is lawful.违背理性的事物是非法的。
  Nothing should be rashly changed.任何事都不应仓促改变。
  A man commanding not too strictly is better obeyed.在指挥时不过于严格,就会更好地得到人们的服从。
  All man are freemen or slaves.凡人不是自由人就是奴隶。
  A thing which has no effect in law, is not an impediment.法律上无效之事,不会构成障碍。
  Hasty counsels are seldom prosperous.草率的律师很难有前途。
  Inquire into doubtful points if you wish understand the law well.如果你想深刻理解法律,你就得对疑点进行一番探究。
  Vain is that power which is never brought into action.从未行使过的权力无效。
  If you wish for peace, be prepared for war.如果你要和平,就要做好战争的准备。

扫描二维码关注更多精彩内容